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                        My Pentland Ancestors
                             (Written by: Charles E. Penland, November 2020)

Over the years I have wondered about who my ancestors were. My Mother’s parents - Charles & Lilly Murray had both died before she was a year old - she was their only surviving child. As I grew up, I really had no ‘clue’ about who had contributed to me being born in August of 1936. My Penland grandparents had moved their family 
(2 daughters & my Dad) to Oklahoma from Tennessee, in 1921. They had left their other family members in Tennessee. At the time, Oklahoma had just been a state for about 15 years. My grandmother was Cherokee Indian and she was more willing to talk about her family, but all I knew about my grandfather’s family was that his father was named Noah Penland, and he had died about age 50. My grandfather’s mother (Parthenia - ‘Thenie’) had developed dementia and had come to Oklahoma to live with my grandparents, but had died before I was born. I remember my Dad driving my grandparents and his sister Nora back to Tennessee to visit my grandmother’s family two or three times when I was very young. And, although my grandfather had a brother and six sisters in Tennessee, I don’t remember any talk of them ever visiting them. So, although my name was ‘Penland,’ I knew almost nothing about who the ‘Penland’s’ were - or how, and where did that family originate? The USA became a country in the late 1700's - and since almost every family had migrated here from Europe, I wondered whether the Penland’s were here then, or did they come later?

By the time I was 50 years old & retired from the Air Force, I decided to try and find out more about the Penland family, - where did that family originate & were they here in the 1700's? 

As I began my searching efforts, I fairly quickly learned that the name ‘Penland’ actually originated during the 1700s when four men named ‘Pentland’ had migrated to North Carolina from Pennsylvania. They were named William, Robert, George and Alexander - I learned that George was my 4th great grandfather! For some reason, all four decided to drop the ‘t’ from the middle of their last name, and all their children and most of their descendants used the spelling ‘Penland’. So, almost every person in America named Penland can be traced back to these four men. The possible exception to that is there are a number of black families in America named Penland. I personally believe their family name was adopted when slavery was abolished, and the freed slaves had to have a name. There were a few Penland families who owned some slaves and it was not uncommon for a freed slave, in some cases, to adopt the name of their previous owner. [If that was the case, one has to wonder why, if someone had been badly mis-treated (as Hollywood movies always depict) would they ever adopt the name of their abusers? Just maybe, not all slaves were mis-treated as we have been led to believe over the years.]  

The four men (William, Robert, George and Alexander) originally settled in North Carolina, but later Alexander moved on to Kentucky. Eventually, one branch of his family decided to change the spelling of their name to ‘Pendlum.’ One other spelling change occurred when in 1830, a census taker wrote it down as ‘Pendland’ - that happened to be the family of William Penland who lived in Cocke County, Tennessee at the time. After years of chasing clues, I discovered that William was my third great grandfather (a son of George Penland and Ann Armstrong, one of the four who migrated to North Carolina). One of William’s sons, Noble Alexander Penland, adopted that spelling with the ‘d’ in the middle. For 150 years, the mystery of who Noble Alexander Pendland was, and who he was related to, confused every researcher. Many of his descendants didn’t know who his parents were. The mystery was solved when we discovered the 1830 census, and a DNA test done by me and a descendant of Noble Alexander revealed we both share the exact same DNA. My father had told me several times that our name at one time had a ‘d’ in the middle, but when I discovered the original ‘t’ had been dropped, I assumed he had just been mistaken. It turned out, he was correct!  

I learned that a Pentland from Scotland or Ireland had apparently come to America before the year 1650, over 100 years before the American Revolution. The specific name of that person is unknown - various people think they know, but there is disagreement about it because no actual documentary evidence of his identity has been found. 

In his ‘Family Book,’ Patrick Penland reported on all recorded evidence of the Pentland family he could find - some of it as far back as 1200 AD. After seeing the evidence he presented, I began to wonder about the people who began the Pentland family - who were their ancestors? Where did they come from, etc.? I began to search to see what I could find, primarily using the internet.

I discovered that the Pentland family began around 1200 AD in the Northern area of Scotland called Orkney. It all began when a Norwegian Official (called a ‘Jarl’) married a ‘Pict’ woman and they had a son they named William de Petlandi. That name “Petlandi” was his mother’s name, and is believed to mean ‘Pictland’. William received his mother’s name “de Petlandi” at birth because that was the custom of the ‘Picts’, at the time. While very young, William was sent by his parents south to the Edinburgh area for his safety, because they feared war was coming! When he grew up, William married a young woman named Margaret Murray and they had three sons, Adam, Christian and David. It is generally believed that a descendant of David may have been the first “Pentland” who came to America. I wondered what the story of these parents might be, so I began to search the internet to see what I could find. Recorded European history of over a thousand years ago is sometimes rather murky and it’s accuracy may not be perfect, but what is available is interesting. I decided to try and discover what was happening in Scotland prior to 1200 AD.  

I knew that the family had begun in Orkney - an area in northern Scotland, and that area had been greatly influenced by Viking invaders settling there before the year of 1000. And, the father of William de Petlandi (Pentland) was one of those Norsemen. I wondered whether there might be some information available about those early years. So, after almost 800 years from the time the family began, I started to gather information (the internet made much of it available) that allows at least a partial reconstruction of what may have been involved in the creation of this family. Of course, the information from that long ago has to be considered with some skepticism, but it gives us a good idea of what is believed to have happened many years ago to bring the Pentland, Penland, Pendlum & Pendland families into this world.
          *          *        *         *
The area known as Orkney consists of 70 islands located about six miles north of the Scottish mainland. These islands were first inhabited by people known as ‘Picts’ who were believed to be of Celtic origin, as were the Scotts. The Picts were sometimes described as only a little larger than pygmies and sometimes described as “the painted people” because of their habit of painting their bodies with dye. (They were portrayed as ‘painted people’ in the movie “Braveheart.”) They were said to have worked great marvels in city building each evening and morning, but by noontime they were utterly bereft of their strength and hid for fear in little subterranean dwellings. At that time, the islands were not called the Orkneys but rather, ‘Pictland’ and that is why to this day the sea dividing these islands from Scotland is called ‘Pictland Firth’ by the local people. The greatest of all whirlpools is to be found there, which engulfs the strongest ships, sucking them in at ebb tide and spewing out their fragments with a belch at flood tide. Only a few of these islands were/are inhabited. And, to this day, it is unknown where these people known as ‘Picts’ actually came from.  

According to an Irish tradition, the ‘Pict’ people came from Scythia, or Thrace. They allegedly landed in Ireland, where they married Irish women before sailing north and settling in Orkney. Supposedly, the Irish extracted the promise from them that they would honor them by having a matrilineal succession for children born to them (the children would take their mothers’ name). According to one historian, the Picts went on to conquer all of Britain, north of the Firth of Forth. Every time the Roman Empire tried to move into their territory, the Picts successfully fought back. (The Roman legions were the greatest military force the world had ever seen and the only people they couldn’t conquer was this wild clan.) The Picts held their territory against the invading Romans in a number of engagements and, although they were defeated in battle, they won the war. Scotland holds the distinction of never falling to the invading armies of Rome, even though the Romans attempted conquest numerous times. And, after dominating the area in northern Scotland for over 500 years, the Pict people, as a definable group, disappeared from the historical record.  

Orkney and the nearby Shetland Islands (100 islands) are unlike any other part of Great Britain, but over the years they have maintained their original, unique customs and traditions resulting from their long and eventful history. In the early 8th and 9th centuries the Vikings arrived in the Shetland Islands looking for land and for the next 600 years or so the Norsemen ruled both Orkney and Shetland. Surprisingly, although the Vikings had a reputation as fearsome warriors, most of them settled down and became farmers.

As early as the 7th century there was a united “Pict-land” which had been penetrated by Christianity. The ‘Pict people’ only appeared in history, and became dominant in Northern Scotland for over 500 years from 300 to 843 AD. They had first been noticed as early as AD 297 when a Roman writer spoke of the “Picts and Irish (Scots) attacking ‘Hadrian’s Wall.’ He referred to them as ‘Picti’ (the painted ones) ostensibly because of their habit of painting their bodies. They had repelled the Roman army around 400 and were known as fierce fighters (the movie, ‘Braveheart’ was based on them).   In 843 Kenneth MacAlpine, the King of the Scots also became King of the Picts, and united their two lands into a new kingdom called ‘Alba’ which eventually evolved into ‘Scotland’.  

In looking at the history of Scotland some unfamiliar names keep popping up - here is a short explanation of some that may help in a better understanding of what I found:

         Alba - the name of Scotland before it officially became ‘Scotland’
         Atholl - a large historical division in the Scottish highlands that
                    covers almost 450 square miles
         Earl - a rank of nobility in early Scandinavia 
         Firth of Forth - the estuary of several scottish rivers including the
                    river Forth
        Jarl - a Scandinavian noble ranking just below the King (replaced 
                    the designation of Earl over time)
         Moray - (home of the Murray family) a county in the east of Scotland, also 
                    known as 

         Mormar - a regional or provincial ruler in ancient Scotland

         Scythia - an area of central Eurasia
         Shetland - a group of islands near Orkney
         Shire - a word used as we do ‘county’ today
         Thrace - an area in south east Europe including (Bulgaria, Greece 
                    & Turkey)

The first Viking raids into Britain were in the 780's, by which time it seems likely the Norse already had a foothold in Orkney. They first came to flee an emerging new monarchy in Norway, and these exiled sea pirates used the islands to launch their own further voyages and raids. The islands’ strategic position, off the northern coast of Scotland and at the center of the Viking “sea roads,” made them the obvious choice as a base for their further expansion and raids into Scotland and Ireland.  

King Harald I of Norway (the first King of Norway), claimed Orkney and Shetland for his kingdom and due to political differences and problems had to take military action to secure these Northern isles as realms friendly to his rule at home. The founding of the Orkney Earldom came about when in 874 the Norwegian King Harald Harfagri (Fairhair), of Norway sailed westwards to deal with the Vikings who, after raiding Norway throughout the summer, were making Orkney their base. Harald’s forces had conquered Orkney and Shetland before going on to the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. On this voyage, ‘Earl Rognvald of More’, received the Earldom of Orkney from King Harald as compensation for the loss of his son, Ivar. Not interested in the Orkney earldom, Rognvald passed it to his brother, Sigurd. As Earl, Sigurd ruled wisely and became very powerful. 

Sigurd formed an alliance with ‘Thorstein the Red’, travelling south into Scotland where they conquered all of Caithness and large parts of Argyll, Moray and Ross. He constructed a stronghold in Moray and was involved in a feud with a local Scots magnate ‘Maelbrigte’ - nicknamed ‘Maelbrigte Tusk’ because of his protruding teeth. Whatever caused the feud, eventually both agreed they should meet to settle their differences, each taking no more than 40 men. Sigurd believed the Scots were not trustworthy so he took 80 men (2 on each of his 40 horses). After he and his men won the battle, Sigurd had the heads of his enemies severed and strapped to his warrior’s saddles as a show of triumph. Sigurd fastened Maelbrigte’s head to his own saddle - and on his way home, as he spurred his horse, Maelbrigte’s protruding teeth is said to have scratched his leg badly. [It should be noted that this account was written some 300 years after the event happened.] Sigurd served as the Earl of Orkney from 874 to 890 AD and many others (some, for short periods) had the title - for more than 300 years. 

By the end of the 13th century, the fact that Orkney was a part of Norway and fell under Norwegian jurisdiction is without question - the islands’ culture, language and way of life were entirely that of a Norse Earldom. However, little is known about the early days of Viking Orkney. The circumstances surrounding the first Norse arrivals and the eventual takeover of Orkney remains a hotly debated issue to this day. But, however and whenever it began, within a few generations Orkney was a distinctly Norse Earldom, from where the Earls controlled Shetland, the western Isles and large areas of northern Scotland. The Norse settlers had achieved complete dominance in the islands, their language and their place-names wiping out those that had gone before.
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Following is information collected primarily from the internet. It may not be absolutely correct in every detail, but it offers some insight into the lives of the various people who had a part in creating the Pentland family.

In 1001, a man named Donnchad Mac Crinain I (the Gracious) King of Scots was born. He married Suthen Sibylla and they had a son named Mael Muire Donnchad who was born in Perthshire. Donnchad became the King of Alba in 1034 and he was killed in 1040 in a battle at Elgin in Morayshire at the age of 31. (Shakespeare used him as the historical basis for the ‘King Duncan” in his play, MacBeth)  

Mael Muire Donnchad was Mormar of Atholl at the beginning of the 12th century until possibly the 1330s. He married Mary de Atholl and they had a son named Matad Mormaer, who became the Earl of Atholl. He was born in 1085 in Perth, Perthshire, Scotland He married Margaret, the daughter of Earl Haakon Paulsson of Orkney. (Earl Haakon was the son of “Thorfinn the Mighty”). Through this marriage, their son, Harald Maddadsson would eventually become the Earl of Orkney.

In 1122 AD, a man named Paul Haakonsson became joint Earl of Orkney with his brother Harald (called Harald-smooth tongue) and he held that title until 1137. Paul had not been well loved by his female kin. In 1137, Paul reportedly abdicated and was killed on the order of the mother of Harald Haakonsson. His mother and sister, Frakkok, had previously tried to murder him with a poisoned shirt which instead caused the death of his brother Harald Haakonsson in 1127. It is said that Frakkok and her supporters had originally intended to advance the claims of Harald Haakonsson’s son Erlend Haraldsson upon Paul’s death. However, Paul Haraldsson was replaced as Earl of Orkney by his second cousin Rognvald Kali Kolsson, one of the lead men of King Harald Gillie of Norway. Rognvald Kali Kolsson served as guardian of Harald Maddadsson, the nephew of Paul Haakonsson.  

In 1138, Rognvald apointed Harald Maddadsson as Earl of Orkney jointly with himself.   Harald Maddadsson had been born in 1134 to Matad Mormaer and Margaret, daughter of Earl Haakon Paulsson of Orkney.   He became a significant figure in northern Scotland and played a prominent part in Scottish politics of the twelfth century. He was one of the three most powerful Earls of Orkney along with Sigurd Eysteinsson and Thorfinn Sigurdsson.

J
was murdered by Snaekoll Gunnison.  In 1211 Jarl David and his wife (a woman named de Petlandi) had become concerned that a war was coming to their area, so they decided to send their young son William south to Edinburgh for his safety. Thorkel de Petlandi, a brother to William’s mother, along with a few other relatives, took William and journeyed south to Edinburgh. When William grew up he married a young woman named Margaret Murray (Information available indicates he may have been several years older than Margaret). They had three sons, Adam, who became a Monk in Holyrood Abbey, Christian, who had a castle near Kynel, and David, who many believe was the ancestor of the Pentland male who arrived in America before 1650.

Adam became a Monk in Holyrood Abbey and was known as Adam de Pentland. On 7 January 1298 he, along with his Abbots, Priors and others had to swear on “copis christie” to be loyal to King Edward I, “the Longshanks.” of England. This followed the defeat of the Scottish Army at Dunbar by the English, and two thousand Lords, Landowners, Bishops and other Churchmen, signed what is called “the Ragman’s Roll” pledging allegiance to the King. Adam signed his name Adam de Pentland, and his brother Christian who was Lord of a Castle near Kynel signed the “Ragman’s Roll” as Christian de Pentland “Lord of Pentland.” On 12 August 1304, King Edward and some of his men visited Pentland Castle. Afterward, Christian demanded the government pay five schillings for damage done to his property during the King’s visit. The third son, David also signed “the Ragman Roll.” He signed the document as David de Pentland.

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After discovering the above information I was struck by the fact that the wife of the first Pentland male was named ‘Murray,’ especially since that was my mother’s maiden name. I thought to myself, “Wow, after 900 years we’ve come full circle”! Margaret Murray?? I wondered what her family history might have been? So, I began again to search the early history of Europe to see what I could find. And, what I found, was very interesting! 

Margaret’s story began in, of all places, Belgium, with a man named Comte Ollec de Flandre II, a Flemish Knight who was born in 1065 AD in Flanders. He was also known as ‘Robert of Jerusalem,’ ‘Count Robert II of Flanders’ and ‘Robert the Crusader’ (he participated in the first Crusade). Flanders, in the Fleming region of Belgium is a dutch speaking area in the country’s north, and one of the three Belgium regions. Almost nothing is known about who Ollec’s parents and siblings were. The only thing really known about him is that he had a son named Freskin (or Freskyn) who was born around 1100 AD in Pembrokeshire in Wales. Ollec had migrated to Wales (in Britain) and held lands there. He died on October 5, 1111 AD in France. [It should be noted that there are people who claim to be genealogists that do not agree with this.]  

King David I of Scotland was the son of Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex. He spent most of his childhood in Scotland, but in 1093 he was exiled to England for a time. He then became King of Scotland from 1124 to 1153 AD. When he returned home from exile, early in his reign, he was accompanied by Freskin, by then a Flemish nobleman. Shortly after his arrival in Scotland, Freskin was granted the lands of Strathbrock, in modern day West Lothian, close to Uphall and Broxburn. Freskin was one of several Flemings who had lands in Moray bestowed upon them by King David to replace the native Gaelic nobility, who had resisted his rule and prevented him from forming a cohesive kingdom. [In 1130 AD at the request Of King David, Freskyn and several other Flemings were instrumental in suppressing an insurrection of the men in the Province of Moray (led by Angus, Earl of Moray) who refused to accept the authority of the King.] As a reward for putting down the revolt, Freskin acquired large additional grants of land in that province to the north of the modern city of Elgin. It was approximately 5 miles to the north of Elgin on an island on a tidal loch where he built his first motte and bailey fortalice (home/castle), almost certainly from locally harvested lumber. Later, it was replaced by the stone Castle of Duffus, the remains of which can be visited to this day. 

It is from the lands Freskin occupied in the Province of Moray that he and his successors derived the name “de Moravia”. Freskin married an unknown woman in Moravia who had been born about 1110 AD. Freskin died before 1171 AD, in Duffus Castle, Morayshire, Scotland. He was survived by at least three sons. He is recognized as the progenitor of the modern day Murray, Sutherland and possibly the Douglas clans but he was not a member of either clan as clans did not exist at that time. Freskyn had estates at Strathbrock in West Lothian and Duffus in Moray. His descendants are the Earls of Sutherland and the Murray Dukes of Atholl.

It is said that no historian has ever found any written record of Freskin from within his own lifetime. Reference is always made to the land charters from 1165 AD in which ‘William the Lion’, grandson of David I confirmed to William, Freskin’s son the lands held by his late father during the lifetime of David I. 

Freskin’s son William Freskin de Moravia was born in 1138 in Duffus Castle, Morayshire., Scotland. He inherited his father’s lands and took the name ‘de Moravia,’ or “of Moray” in english. He was known as Baron of Duffus and Straybrock, Knight and Laird of Duffus. The Moray, or Murray family became prolific in Scotland, and their chief now holds the title ‘Duke of Atholl.’ Hugh, one of William’s sons, acquired a large tract of land in Sutherland. A second son William, took the surname ‘Sutherland’ and was named ‘Earl’ of that region in the 1230s, a title which is still held by his descendants today. It is possible that another son of William’s family may possibly have created the Douglas family. William Freskin died in 1203 in Duffus Castle at 65 years of age.  

The son of William Freskin de Moravia, also named William, was born before 1200 and died 1248 at an unknown location. He had a son named Walter de Moravia who became Lord of Petty, Bracholy, Boham, Artreldfol and Blothwell, Justiciar of Lothian - he was a 13th century Noble. He had succeeded his father by 1226 and accompanied King Alexander II of Scotland into England to meet with King Henry II of England in 1236. Walter inherited the lands of Bothwell and Drumsargard in Lanarkshire and Smailholm in Berwickshire in 1242 AD. The exact date of Walter de Moravia’s birth is unknown. He became one of the greatest men of his time and had great possessions. He married a daughter of Malcolm, Earl of Fife and they had two sons, William and Andrew. Walter died in 1244, at an unknown location.  

Walter’s son William had been born about 1195 in Bothwell Castle, Lanarkshire, Scotland. He married Elizabeth Macduff and they had a daughter named Margaret Murray who was born in 1220 AD in Bothwell Castle in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Margaret married William de Petlandi (Pentland) on a date unknown. 

Apparently, William enjoyed a status of some import because he married Magaret whose family had been actively involved in the national affairs of Scotland. The Murray (or Morays) family of Bothwell established ‘Clan Murray’ in the 12th century. Clan Murray is a highland Scottish clan, the Chief holding the title of ‘Duke of Atholl.’  
Later, in the 16th century the descendants of the Morays of Bothwell & the Murrays of Tullibardine secured the chiefship of the clan and were created ‘Earls of Tullibardine.’ The first Earl of Tullinardine married the heiress to the Stewart earldom in 1626. The Murray Earl of Atholl was created ‘Marquess of Atholl’ in 1676 and in 1703 it became a dukedom. The Marquess of Tullibardine title has continued as a subsidiary title, being bestowed on elder sons of the chief until they succeed him as ‘Duke of Atholl.’ The Murray chiefs played an important and prominent role in support of William Wallace and Robert the Bruce during the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 13th and 14th centuries. The Murrays also largely supported the Jacobite House of Stuart during the Jacobite risings of the 18th century. [NOTE: It was Robert the Bruce, the King of Scots who confiscated Pentland properties in Orkney when they failed to support him in the ‘Battle of Bannockburn’ on 23 & 24 June 1314 - they had supported his adversary, King Edward II of England! He gave their property to the St. Clair family, who had supported him.]

As said earlier, William Pentland & Margaret Murray had three sons, Adam - who became a Monk in Holyrood Abbey, Christian - who was Lord of a Castle, which was located near Kynel, and David, of whom little is known except that he had a son named Alexander. At that time, (almost 300 years between them) there is no provable information available about the lineage of ancestors from David to that first male Pentland who came to America However, it is believed that the first Pentland male who came to America, was a descendant of David.  

William Pentland had been born sometime before 1211 - Margaret was born in 1220 so when they married, he was at least 10 to 15 years older than Margaret. Apparently, William died or they were divorced, because Margaret married John Montgomery (date unknown) who was believed to be about her age. During their marriage, her son David Pentland was listed as part of the family - possibly indicating that he was still a minor when they married. She may have been the mother of one child with John, Murthaw Montgomery, but he had four other children - likely from another marriage. She died at age 30 in 1250 in Eastwood, Renfrewshire, Scotland. John died about 1285.

Several years ago I corresponded with Derile Pentland who lives in Canada, who descends from the last Pentland Clan Chief - he furnished me the following statement concerning the Pentland family of Scotland:  

“The family Pentland was originally of high nobility with claims to the throne itself. After Jarl Jon & Jarl David died, Pentland lands in the north of Dair and Lyth in Caithness were annexed by the King of Scots, Robert the Bruce, and given to the Sinclair family. The Pentlands who stayed, migrated south settling along the way in places such as Iverness, the Isle Skye and Aberdeen. The Pentland’s that made it that far joined others that were already there. Some settled in Edislaw in Perthshire where friends and relatives such as the Murray’s and the MacDuff’s lived. Later, they moved around the Firth of Forth and settled near the Pentland hills and the village of “Pentland.” There, (on June 23/24 1314) they risked everything and fought on the Scottish side. They were rewarded by having their villages, Castles and Mains annexed to William Sinclair by Robert the Bruce. The Clan settled the area Niddry Mains, Carrington, Liberton, Haddingtln, Edinburgh, Lanark, Glasgow and many outlying areas. They maintained their seat at Edislaw Perthshire until 1513 when it was given with lands and mains to George Ramsey by Mary Queen of Scots. That rendered the Clan landless, but they could still muster fighting men. They threw their lot with Bonnie Prince Charlie who promised them the return of lands and honors, if they helped him. After the loss of that battle, the government tried to break the Clan by sending their chieftains and clansmen to penal colonies in Australia, America and Canada. Many escaped to Ireland and France. Later, the Clan Chief came back from Ireland and became a Burgess of Glasgow. He was granted the Coat of Arms when his father died in 1811. He later came to America (Canada) with his family and has been here ever since. The Pentland’s were highlanders long before they became lowlanders. In the 1990’s there were three or four families in Motherwell but mainly around Haddington, Niddry Mains, Carrington, Liberton, Edinburgh and Glasgow.”  

No actual record has been found as to David Pentland marrying. Family records from the time Margaret died until 1500 (about 250 years) have not been found - that period of time is basically a ‘void’ when it comes to the Pentland ancestor lineage.  

During the last several years, people trying to reconstruct the Pentland family from David Pentland to the earliest Pentland who arrived in America prior to 1650 have claimed that man was a Henry Pentland. They base that conclusion on the following:

                   In Scotland in 1513 a David Pentland had a son named 
                   Alexander, and that son was the father of Henry Pentland. 
                   Whether it was the same Henry Pentland or not, is not 
                   clear, but it is claimed a Henry Pentland born about 1600 
                   in Inveresk, Midlothian, Scotland married Margaret Douglas
                   and they had a son, also named Henry, born in Inveresk in
                   1623. He grew up and allegedly married a woman named 
                   Jane (last name unk) in 1645 in Old Scotts, Monmouth 
                   County, East Jersey, New Jersey. (No documentary evidence
                   has been found to confirm that he was the first Pentland to
                   arrive in America, but it is possible.) Henry and Jane are said 
                   to have had a son named John Pentland and it is from his
                   family that the four men who migrated to North Carolina camert
                   from. (At this time there is just no official documentary proof to
                   make that connection.)  

[NOTE: In Patrick Penland’s research for his book, he did not find any records to support the above account of Henry being the first Pentland immigrant. After his extensive efforts to find documentary evidence, he concluded that the first Pentland to arrive in America may very possibly have been George Pentland, a Ulster-Scot Covenanter, who was born in 1620. George Pentland had been persecuted and very possibly exiled to America as punishment for signing the ‘Solemn League and Covenant’ in Ireland in April 1644. He died in 1695. The fact is that as of 2020, the name of that earliest immigrant is unknown. However, that man is believed to be the ancestor of many Pentland’s, most Penland’s, and all Pendland’s & Pendlum’s in America today!]  



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