Family  Histories
[ This section is available to post individual family histories ---we encourage each family to write their own family history as a "work in progress" and update it as new info becomes available.    Each Line Historian should  act as a single point of contact to assemble them for their individual line. ]




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"THE  PENTLAND  FAMILY  HISTORY"
                     { A  Work  In Process }
  According to Black's "Surnames in Scotland" the name "PENTLAND" is
from an ancient, but no longer existing Parish of Pentland in Midlothian County, Scotland.  

(The following is quoted from "The Hall of Names International, Inc."  on their Certification # - 943320-12.10 H - 27462)   "The Border region of England and Scotland produced some of the most illustrious family  names the world has ever known, names such as Armstrong, Nixon, Graham, Hume, Irving, Rutherford , and so on, and included in this group is the surname Pentland.  

Professional analysts have researched the history of lowland Scotland and northernn England, including many private collections of genealogical records, the Inquisitio, the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, the Ragman Rolls, The Hearth Rolls, the Domesday Book, parish caartularies, baptismals, and tax rolls, and revealed that the first record of the name Pentland was found in Midlothian where they were seated from early times and their first records appeared on the census rolls taken by the ancient Kings of Scotland to determine the rate of taxation of their subjects.

Different spellings of the name were found in the archives, each alternate linked to the root source of the surname.  The name Pentland occurred in many references, from time to time the surname was spelt Pentland, Pentlan, Paintland, and these changes in spelling frequently occurred, even between father and son.   Scribes and church officials recorded the name from its' sound, sometimes changing the spelling on each occasion of the same person's birth, death or marriage.

The family name Pentland is believed to be descended originally from the Strathclyde Britons.   This ancient, founding race of the north were a mixture of Gaelic / Celts whose original territories ranged from Lancashire in the south, northward to the south bank of the river Clyde in Scotland.  From 400 to 900 A.D. their territory was overrun firstly by the Irish Gaels, then the Angles from the East, and,, finally the Picts and Dalriadans from the north.   However, their basic culture remained relatively undisturbed.  By 1000 A.D. the race had formed into discernible Clans and Families, perhaps some of the first evidence of the family structure in Britain.   By the 16th and 17th centuries many of our modern family names descended directly from this ancient race, including Pentland.   Tracing its ancient development, the name was  found in Midlothian where they were recorded as a family of great antiquity seated on the lands of Pentland in that shire.   Adam of Pentland was a monk of Holyrood Abbey in 1298.   Ralph Pentland led an expedition to Montrose to arrest a vessel destined for England with wool and hides.   Thomas Pentland acquired lands in Edinburgh in 1400, and William Pentland was given permission to trade with the English in 1480.  They flourished on their estates for several centuries.   Notable amongst the family at this time was Pentland of Midlothian.   The border of England and Scotland was created on a line from Carlisle to Berwick in the east.   Many Strathclyde families straddled the border but continued to be unified clans, powers unto themselves.

After 1000 A.D., border life was in turmoil.   In 1246 six Chiefs from the Scottissh side and six from the English side  met at Carlisle and produced a set of laws governimng all the border Clans.   These were unlike any laws prevailing in English or Scotland or, for that matter, anywhere else in the world.   For example, it was a far greater offence to refuse to help a neighbor recover his property, wife, cattle, sheep or horses, than it was to steal them in the first place.   Hence, the expression "Hot Trod", or, a hot pursuit, from which we get the modern "Hot to Trot".   For refusal of assistance during a "Hot Trod,"  a person could be hanged on the instant, without trial.  Frequently, the descendants of these clans or families apologetically refer to themselves as being descended from "cattle or horse thieves" when in fact, it was an accepted code of life on the border.
In 1603, the Union of the Scottish and England crowns became reality under King James VI of Scotland, who was also crowned King James 1st of England.   The Crown dispersed these "unruly border clans," clans which had served loyally in the defence of each.   The unification of the governments was threatened and it was imperative that the old "border code" should be broken up/   Hence, the Border Clans were banished to England, northern Scotland and to Ireland.   Some were outlawed and banished directly to Ireland, the Colonies and the New World.
                                { END OF THE DIRECT QUOTE }  

(In "Pioneers of Dungannon & Nile," Ontario, Canada.....pg 83, August 1998)    "The Pentlands came from the highlands to the south of Scotland many hundreds of years ago where they had a Castle and Barony which later became the property of Sir William Sinclair."   In 1633 the Sinclairs sold the Barony of Pentland to the Gibson's who held the lands into  the twentieth century.   All that remains today of Pentland is the church yard which contains  an old family vault of the Covenaters who were slain at the Battle of the Rullion Green in 1666.  
           
                          1.  Penland Family History, by Buford Penland in 1995
                          2. A  Penland family in Tennessee  &  Oklahoma
                               by Patrick Penland in 2009