Penland  DNA Project
DNA Project For Genealogy
All males can trace their Y-DNA lineage back to a theoretical Y-DNA prototype, which originated in Africa and is thought to have migrated out of Africa over 60,000 years ago (60kya).   Although the Y-DNA is usually inherited from father to son without any changes, occasionally differences arise via mutations.

Researchers are able to plot the migration path of our ancient paternal ancestors by examining the pattern of Y-DNA SNP markers found in "indigenous" populations from around the world.  By determining the location where these key Y-DNA SNP markers first arose and the approximate time that each Y-DNA SNP marker arose, researchers have been able to successfully plot the ancient migration patterns of man based on the pattern of SNPs found in their Y-DNA SNP markers are often referred to as "time and date stamps" because each marker can be traced back to a particular time and place in history.  By testing the SNP markers in your Y-DNA, you can determine your unique pattern of SNP markers.  Your Y-DNA  SNP markers allow you to confirm your Y-DNA Haplogroup (a designation of the several groups who migrated)  and view the migration patterns of your paternal ancestors.                                         

The Y-DNA Haplogroup R, (which tests so far indicate Penland males are included in)   is perhaps the most prominent Y-DNA lineage on Earth today.  It is the pre-eminent Y haplogroup in Europe, the U.S. and India.  While the exact location for the origin of Haplogroup R is under debate, its general placement in West-Central Asia was followed by expansion in all directions, stretching to the 'Seven Seas'.  The date for its origin is in the Paleolithic Era, 35-40kya, and populations harboring this Y-DNA variant survived the Ice Ages to repopulate much of Europe and Asia.  Migration episodes included excursions to Africa, South East Asia and in recent eras, the invasion of and immigration to the Americas by West European nations such as Spain, England and Ireland where the levels of Haplogroup R are near 90%. 

Penland  DNA  Project
In 1909 Charles Penland completed a 44 marker DNA test.  He is a direct descendant of the William Penland who is listed on the Census for Cocke County, Tennessee in 1830.   We have determined that William is either the same William who married Mary Casey in Roane County in 1811 & then disappeared in 1819, or he is only a relative of William, Robert, George and Alexander, possibly a cousin.   To test our theory that he is, in fact, the William Penland who married Mary Casey, (despite the fact that family had assumed he had died) recently Phillip Penland, a direct descendant of William and Mary completed the same test as Charles.   The result was that 42 of the 44 markers were identical meaning that there is a 49% chance that Charles & Phillip share a common ancester within the past 4 generations.   [ William is Charles's GGGgrandfather (5) and Phillip's GGgrandfather (4) ]  The tests also showed that they had a 79% chance of a common ancestor within the past 10 generations, and a 95% chance of a common ancestor during the past 18 generations. 
OUR CONCLUSION:    We are heading in the right direction!  We need more DNA tests from one/or more descendants of the four ancestors to further conclude our relationships.  If you would like to participate in our DNA Project, you can contact the Genebase DNA Lab {who manage our project} at < support@genebase.com >    The 44 Marker test costs about $200.00 and requires you to only swab the inside of your cheek twice.

The Genebase Lab uses a computer processing program which spit out the following information from their data base as our DNA tests were being evaluated:
                  a)  A male named Frank Charpentier has 17 of 20 matching markers and
                        is likely linked to us with a common ancestor within the last 50
                        generations.
                  b)  A male named Hector Rafael Pacheco has a 50% chance of having a
                       common ancestor with us within the past 40 generations, and a 95%
                       chance within the past 69 generations. 
                  c)  A male named Kenneth Davis has a common ancestor with us about 89
                       generations ago  {that would be about the time the Bible was put
                        together and printed in greek}